• Apartheid: An Economic Policy

    The rise of apartheid in South Africa is arguably the single most defining event in the nation’s short history. Beyond the idea of segregation, apartheid represented the legal institution of white supremacy. During the period following independence from the British Crown, the South African Parliament passed a series of laws that limiting the economic development of the “native” population, the paramount of which was the Natives Land Act of 1913. These policies formed the basis of apartheid whereby the government was able to restrict the economic, political, and social development of the largest portion of the population. Despite the obvious racial, social, and religious overtones that dominated the public opinion of the institution, I argue that the role of apartheid was, more accurately, a tool of economy and capitalism. In order to explain this argument in greater detail it’s important to assess the historical context in which apartheid was able to flourish, starting with the formation of the Union of South Africa, and how the government’s portrayal of this system provided the white minority with a moral justification for its implementation.

  • The Real Absurdity of Existentialist Philosophy, Attaining the Unattainable, the Authenticity of Being

    Existentialism is the discussion of our being in an attempt to reconcile our purpose for being. A central idea within existentialist thought is the authenticity of being, how can we become ourselves? Many consider the limitations we place on ourselves that hinder our progress to full self-realization in an attempt to rid ourselves of a predetermined outcome. Essentially, we are what we make ourselves, but are we really? These ideas present an interesting discussion as we are forced to question, how do we attain this level of existence?

  • The New South: Redefining an Agrarian Culture

    It’s hard to say what distinguishes the Old South from the New South, as one single characteristic of the South does not seem to change the meaning of Southern culture. There is however something to be said about the way that the South has always remained a cultural identity of America. There are many distinct characteristics that set the South apart from the rest of the country, but who can say which of those characteristics is central to the construction of regional identity.

  • Child Narrators: The Challenge of Discovery

    There is certain honesty about a child in that children are mostly free of the restrictions and responsibilities of society. This can be attributed to their lack understanding the world around them. Romesh Gunesekera’s Reef and Hisham Matar’s In the Country of Men explore the journey of child narrators as they try to make sense of the world. As child narrators both main characters are trapped inside of a world that is limited by their perception of it. There is a constant questioning of themselves and others in an attempt to make sense of everything. The narrators tend to personify a naïveté about their interaction and understanding of the world. The challenges faced by these children seem to hinge on the distinction between how they perceive the world, how that perception is restricted by their innocence in the world, and how that perception is often times founded in their ability to discover themselves. Gunesekera describes the predicament of the child narrator when Triton, the narrator in Reef, explains, “I was trapped inside what I could see, what I could hear, what I could walk to without straying from my undefined boundaries, and in what I could remember from what I learned in my mud-walled school” (Gunesekera, 30).

  • Evaluating Terrorism in Contemporary Irish Literature

    Understanding Ireland as a nation torn by the influence of colonialism provides an essential backdrop to the conflict that occurred during most of the twentieth century between a Protestant Ireland and a Catholic Ireland. This violent, political conflict emerged partly as a result of a national identity crisis in which the nation was left divided both ideologically and geographically. Ideologically the nationalists who represented the Catholic Irish population fought for an independent Ireland whereas the unionists who represented the Protestant population supported a British influence in the country. Ireland also became geographically polarized in the sense that the Protestant influence was confined to the northern regions of Ireland whereas the Catholic influence remained strong in southern Ireland.

  • The Nature of Human Compassion: The Role of Art and Literature in Defining Humanity

    Intrinsic in all human beings is the basic understanding of humanity. Under layers of hate and oppression lies the basic altruistic instinct that in order for us to succeed as human beings we must essentially combine our efforts for survival. The problem lies in the understanding of this altruistic component of human nature. In order to redefine this altruism one must transcend one’s thoughts in a cultural context, and be able to understand human nature apart from a specific cultural understanding. Redefining the way one thinks stems from the knowledge of basic truths as defined by a universal concept of morality. Because we are sustained in environments which are culturally familiar to us we tend to find comfort in our cultural support systems and shy away from the exploration of broader concepts. In Nazi Germany the support built by a socialist structure created a system of comfort for those supported by the cultural ideologies. Why then would any German at the time have an interest in disrupting something which seemed to serve as a solution to world peace and stability, and guaranteed the success of their people in a new world order. The question then becomes what enables one to discover a universal concept of this altruistic human nature.

  • Chinese Philosophy and the Fundamental Views of Power


    Few words spoken. This is the wisdom of Chinese philosophy. Reflective of oriental tradition, Chinese philosophy focuses on simplicity. In the few words transmitted there is vast wisdom that has multitudes of relevance. The dense nature of Chinese philosophy is indicative of the necessity of reflection. The reflective nature can be attributed to the layered structure of Chinese philosophy; one result becomes the cause for the next result. The origins of Chinese philosophy can be traced back several thousands of years to the Book of Changes (I Ching). The fundamental ideas in the Book of Changes were developed into Confucianism and Taoism and expanded upon. Confucius and Lao Tzu reflect the primary understandings of I Ching and Chinese philosophy.

  • Science and Religion of the World State

    World peace, a cure to cancer, eternal youth, continual happiness, free drugs, a purpose for living, instant satisfaction, sexual gratification, a perfect world, constant vacations, comfort, without worries, without pain, blissful ignorance, heaven, it is the year of Our Ford 632. Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is the Utopian society of the 26th Century called the World State. A world based on consumerism and conformity, the populace machine is controlled by the central political power of a few individuals, the controllers. The leaders, the world controllers, are the individuals who hold the knowledge of everything outside the World State, past and present. These controllers are entrusted with this knowledge because they have the capacity of understanding, outside of the conditioned view of the masses, that people are better off knowing only what they need to know in order to function as productive members of the World State. The control of the populace machine starts with the science of Ford, the assembly line production method. Society is controlled by this production method, each class of society developed to fulfill a certain function for the collective. Once the science of technology is used to create a member of the World State the religion of Ford is used to condition and maintain the optimum potential of that unit in society.

  • Initial lies...

    This is a great resource for you, but a great burden for me. I believe the children are our future so I’ve dedicated my life to updating this site with the most important readings you will ever come across. There will also be a lot of useless garbage that you must filter through, much like the gold mines of old times, you must carefully sort through tons of ore just to retreive a small ounce of gold.

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